Clause level constituents
Adjective phrase (ADJP)
Adjectives only project a bare ADJP at the clausal level with a copular verb, VERA 'be', VERÐA, 'become', GERAST 'become'
- Hann er (ADJP rauður).
- Hún varð (ADJP leiðinleg).
Secondary predicate adjective.
- Hann fæddist svo (ADJP-SPR blindur).
( (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO-N hann-hann)) (VBDI fæddist-fæða) (ADVP (ADV svo-svo)) (ADJP-SPR (ADJ-N blindur-blindur)))
Adverb phrase (ADVP)
Noun phrase (NP)
Most nominative NPs are NP-SBJ, except some direct objects (NP-OB1) of dative subject verbs.
All oblique NPs that are subjects in Modern Icelandic are annotated as subjects regardless of when the text is written even if this may or may not be the right analysis for all centuries.
Dative subject verbs
- (NP-SBJ Mér) finnst rigningin góð. (rigningin góð is a small clause)
- (NP-SBJ Mér) líkar rigningin.
- (NP-SBJ Mér) líkar rigninguna.
Dative experiencer subjects with copular verbs
- (NP-SBJ Mér) er kalt
- (NP-SBJ Mér) er sama
- (NP-SBJ Mér) verður
Ambiguous DAT-NOM constructions
In DAT-NOM constructions where it is ambiguous whether the DAT NP or the NOM NP is the subject, the DAT NP is tagged as subject. Those who want to use IcePaHC to study oblique subjects have to study the relevant examples.
- (NP-SBJ Mér) þóknaðist tilboðið.
Dative subject + Small clause
- (NP-SBJ Þér) er (IP-SMC heimil ólin)
- (NP-SBJ Antoni) er (IP-SMC setningin erfið)
- (NP-SBJ Þér) er (IP-SMC hart að bakspyrna í mót broddunum)
( (IP-MAT (ADJP-1 (ADJ-N Hart-harður)) (BEPI er-vera) (NP-SBJ (PRO-D þér-þú)) (IP-SMC (IP-INF-SBJ (TO að-að) (VB bakspyrna-bakspyrna) (PP (P í-í) (NP (N-A mót-mót) (NP-COM (NS-D broddu$-broddur) (D-D $num-hinn))))) (ADJP *ICH*-1)) (. .-.)))
Empty oblique subject
A case extension is added to empty subjects if and only if the empty element is non-nominative. This can most frequently occur in cases of conjunction reduction, like *con*-D (empty dative subject), but also in other cases where the subject has been omitted, like *pro*-D.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og) (NP-SBJ *con*-D) (VBDI þótti-þykja) (NP-SBJ (N-N skömm-skömm)) (IP-INF (TO að-að) (VB skilja-skilja) (PP (P við-við) (NP (PRO-A hann-hann)))) (. .-.)))
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (N-A Jarl-jarl)) (VBDI setti-setja) (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1) (ADJP (ADJ-A rauðan-rauður) (CP-CMP (WADJP-2 0) (C sem-sem) (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-2) (NP-SBJ (N-A blóð-blóð))))))))
Direct object. Includes all genitive objects.
Indirect object. Usually dative but occasionally accusative. An NP with this role is always labeled NP-OB2, including cases where the direct object is missing.
- Páll sýndi (NP-OB2 mér) bókina.
- Páll sýndi (NP-OB2 mér) og fór svo heim.
Vocative NPs. See also PPCME/PPCEME guidelines
- "(NP-VOC Einar), hvar eru paprikurnar?"
- "No way, (NP-VOC Lord)"
- lá hún í því (NP-MSR lengi sumars).
( (IP-MAT (VBDI lá-liggja) (NP-SBJ (PRO-N hún-hún)) (PP (P í-í) (NP (PRO-D því-það))) (NP-MSR (ADJ lengi-lengi) (NP (N-G sumars-sumar))) (. .-.)))
- Hún gaf honum kött (NP-TMP þennan vetur).
- Hún hjó drekann (NP-ADT sverði).
- Hún stakk hann (NP-ADT hnífi).
- Hún stóð (NP-SPR vörð).
- Þau kusu grínistann (NP-SPR borgarstjóra).
NP-DIR is for accusative non-argument NPs that indicate the path along which some movement takes place.
- ganga (NP-DIR laugaveginn) heim
- koma (NP-DIR þessa leið) í bæinn
- fara (NP-DIR göngin) til Ólafsfjarðar
- þeir reikuðu fram (NP-DIR eitt stræti)
( (IP-MAT (CONJ En-en) (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0) (C sem-sem) (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1) (NP-SBJ (PRO-N þeir-hann)) (VBDI reikuðu-reika) (RP fram-fram) (NP-DIR (ONE-A eitt-einn) (N-A stræti-stræti)))) (, ,-,) (VBDI veik-víkja) (NP-SBJ (N-N engill$-engilli) (D-N $inn-hinn)) (NP-OB1 (PRO-D sér-sig)) (ADVP (ADVR+ADV jafnsnart-jafnsnart)) (PP (P frá-frá) (NP (PRO-D honum-hann))) (. .-.)))
Prepositional phrase (PP)
Quantifier phrase (QP)
QPs do generally not occur at the clausal level, see: PPCME/PPCEME guidelines
Verb phrase (VP)
Generally, the annotation scheme does not include a VP. See PPCME/PPCEME guidelines
Words as clausal constituents
- ADV Adverbs
- RP - Adverbial particles
- Q - Floated quantifiers
- NEG - Negation
- Verbs and modals
-LFD: -RSP Left dislocation and resumptive elements
- (PP-LFD Ef hann fer á fjöll) (ADVP-RSP þá) verður gaman.
- (NP-LFD Sá sem þáttar allan daginn) (NP-SBJ-RSP hann) verður hamingjusamur.
-PRN: Appositive or parenthetical
- IP-MAT-PRN: Parenthetical matrix clause. Included in an IP that starts before the IP-MAT-PRN and keeps on going after the IP-MAT-PRN.
-SPE: Direct speech
For all CPs and IPs that are part of a direct speech.